Category Archives: Tutorials

Motion Control White Paper – Unlocking the Linear Motion Specification Query

Motion Control – White Paper – Linear Motor Specifications

Understanding the specifications needed to properly size my motion control application –  

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Santa Clarita, CA —– Motion Control Tutorial – Every motion control problem begins with a need to move a certain payload over a certain distance. However, there are many types of moves possible, and determining the right motion control solution may require some calculations to match the specifications found on a given motors data sheet. Most sales engineers will ask you for three basic questions when directing you to the proper motor or motion control solution. What is the stroke or displacement required What is the force or thrust required? At what duty cycle do you plan on operating the motor? Travel Distance The travel distance is the first piece of information needed to unlock any specification, because a solution to move a few microns would utilize different motion technology from an application requiring several meters of travel.

Linear Motion Control – Linear Motors: How Do They Work?

Motion Control – What is a Linear Motor?

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Motion Control White Paper – A linear motor should be thought of as a rotary electric motor that has been cut along a radial plane and unrolled. The resultant motor is a direct drive linear electric motor that can produce linear motion without the need of pneumatic, hydraulic cylinders, or translation of rotary to linear motion with the use of belts or screws. Rotary motors produce torque whereas linear motors produce linear force.

Motion Control Tutorial – What is a Voice Coil Actuator?

Motion Control Tutorial – Understanding the Basics of a Voice Coil Actuator

 

Motion Control Tutorial – A voice coil actuator, also known as a non-commutated DC linear actuator, is a type of direct drive linear motor.  The name “voice coil” comes from one of its historically first applications: vibrating the paper cone of a loudspeaker.  They are currently used for a wide range of applications, including moving much larger masses.  It consists of a permanent magnetic field assembly (permanent magnets and ferrous steel) and a coil assembly.  The current flowing through the coil assembly interacts with the permanent magnetic field and generates a force vector perpendicular to the direction of the current.  The force vector can be reversed by changing the polarity of current flowing through the coil.

Motion Control – Automation Fair in Vancouver, BC on November 6, 2019

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We are excited to invite you to the Electromate Automation Fair on November 6, 2019. The event will take place at the Delta Hotels Burnaby Conference Centre in Burnaby, British Columbia. The Automation Fair is a great opportunity to explore new technologies and see what’s changing in the world of Automation and Motion Control. Don’t miss this opportunity to meet some of leading manufacturers in the Automation Industry, as well as like-minded industry professionals.

Manufacturers in Attendance Include:

Advanced Motion Controls

Applied Motion Products

Exor Electronic

Galil Motion Control

Gam Gear

Kollmorgen

Macron Dynamics

Maxon Motor

Posital Fraba

Harmonic Drive

Tolomatic

Who would benefit from this Seminar:

OEM’s, Custom Machine Builders and End Users in the following industries: Medical, Pharmaceutical, Life Science, Subsea, Robotics, Industrial Automation, Food & Beverage, Forestry, Packaging, Film & Entertainment, Scientific, and Communication Industries.

Topics Covered Include:

Industrial Automation

Motion Control

Robotics

Machine Control

Motor Control

The Agenda Includes:

Lunch will be served as well as snacks/drinks throughout the day. A host bar (beer & wine only) will be open from 1:00pm to 7:00pm.

Cost to attend the Automation Fair is FREE, however preregistration is required. Click HERE to register.

About Electromate:

Electromate’s Core Purpose is to help Manufacturers build better machines using differentiated automation technology. They specialize in Robotic and Mechatronic Solutions for the Industrial Automation marketplace. Respected by customers as a premiere source for High Performance Automation and Motion Control Components & Systems, Electromate® specializes in AC & DC Servo and Stepper Motors & Drives, Motion & Automation Controllers, Positioning Systems & Actuators, Feedback Devices, Gearing Products and HMI’s & Operator Displays, all supported via extensive product selection, just-in-timedelivery, dedicated customer service and technical engineering support.

More on Electromate can be found at

Website: http://www.electromate.com

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company-beta/209277/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/Electromate

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/electromateindustrial/

Blog: https://electromate.wordpress.com/

Electromate Best Blace to Work

For more information on the “Best Place to Work”CLICK HERE!

To view Electromate’s new corporate video CLICK HERE

For further information on this new product or others in our extensive product portfolio, call 1-877-SERVO99 (737-8699) or e-mail Warren Osak at sales@electromate.com or visit Electromate at: www.electromate.com


For other Motion Control Components, Applications, and Technology from Electromate go to: http://MotionControlBuyersguide.com
 

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Motion Control Tutorial – Slotted vs. Slotless Motor Technology

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When first introduced, brushless DC motors, despite their many advantages, were cast as a costly alternative to brush-commutated motors and were typically only specified for low-power applications where long life was the primary desired requirement. Without the mechanical brush-commutator mechanism that would wear and eventually result in motor failure, brushless motors could be relied upon to deliver performance over time. As for other advantages, conventional wisdom held that brushless motors provide high speed and fast acceleration, generate less audible noise and electromagnetic interference, and require low maintenance. Brush-commutated motors, on the other hand, would afford smooth operation and greater economy. In the past decade, though, brushless motors have gained broader appeal and greater acceptance in industry for a wider range of applications previously dominated by brush-commutated products, due in part to dramatic reductions in the cost and size of electronic components and advances in motor design and manufacturing.

At the same time, manufacturers have further sought to challenge conventional wisdom by improving brushless motor design in an effort to combine the traditional advantages of brush-commutated and brushless types. A noteworthy example of how far these innovations have progressed involves the slotless (instead of slotted) construction of the brushless motor’s stationary member, or stator.

The slotless stator design originated with the goal to deliver smooth running performance and eliminate cogging, which is an unwanted characteristic especially in slower-running applications (less than 500 rpm). The absence of cogging is, in fact, the most-often cited reason for selecting a slotless brushless motor.

Slotted Motor Construction

Most brushless motors (slotted or slotless) use electronic commutation, usually Hall-effect sensors and magnets, in place of brushes. The motor’s rotor consists of a steel shaft with permanent magnets or a magnetic ring fixed around the circumference of the shaft. The magnets are responsible for producing torque. As the flux density of the magnet material increases, the amount of torque available from the rotor assembly increases.

In traditional slotted brushless motors, the stator features a group of slotted steel laminations (0.004 in. to 0.025 in. thick), which are fused to form a solid uniform stack and create a series of teeth. Wound copper coils, which produce electromagnetic fields, are then inserted into each of the slots. Together, the laminated stack and wound copper coil form the stator assembly. The return path completing the magnetic circuit consists of the laminated material outboard of the copper windings in the stator and the motor housing.

These brushless slotted motors are especially powerful, because the teeth around which the copper wire is wound place the iron closer to the magnets, so the magnetic circuit is completed more efficiently. As the air gap between iron and magnets is reduced, the torque available for the motor is increased.

However, slotted stators are known to cause cogging, which is attributed to the teeth in their construction. Cogging occurs when the permanent magnets on the rotor seek a preferred alignment with the slots of the stator. Winding copper wires through the slots tends to increase this effect. As magnets pass by the teeth, they have a greater attraction to the iron at the ends of the teeth than to the air gaps between them. This uneven magnetic pull causes the cogging, which ultimately contributes to torque ripple, efficiency loss, motor vibration, and noise, as well as preventing smooth motor operation at slow speeds. A slotless stator offered a solution to the problems experienced with cogging in slotted brushless DC motors.

Advantage of the BLDC Slotted Motor Technology

The main advantages of the slotted technology are:

  • ease of winding customization
  • increased heat dissipation
  • ability to withstand high peak torque
  • high power density

Slotted Motor Applications

The Slotted Motor is ideal for applications such as:

  • Medical Hand Tools
  • Hand held shaver system for arthroscopic surgeries
  • High speed surgical drills for ENT surgeries

Slotless Motor Construction

Instead of winding copper wires through slots in a laminated steel stack as in conventional slotted brushless motors, slotless motor wires are wound into a cylindrical shape and are encapsulated in a hightemperature epoxy resin to maintain their orientation with respect to the stator laminations and housing assembly. This configuration, which replaces the stator teeth, eliminates cogging altogether and results in desired quiet operation and smooth performance.

The slotless design also reduces damping losses related to eddy currents. These currents are weaker in a slotless motor, because the distance between the laminated iron and magnets is greater than in a slotted motor.

Slotless motors are typically designed with sinusoidal torque output that produces negligible distortion, rather then a trapezoidal voltage output. The sinusoidal output reduces torque ripple, especially when used with a sinusoidal driver. Because the slotless design has no stator teeth to interact with the permanent magnets, the motor does not generate detent torque. In addition, low magnetic saturation allows the motor to operate at several times its rated power for short intervals without perceptible torque roll-off at higher power levels.

Compared with slotted motors, slotless construction also can significantly reduce inductance to improve current bandwidth. The teeth in a slotted motor naturally cause more inductance: the coils of copper wire around the teeth interact with the iron in a slotted motor, and this interaction tends to send the current back on itself, resulting in more damping (or dragging) and impacting negatively on slotted motor response and acceleration.

In terms of delivering power, conventional slotted motors used to enjoy the advantage over slotless types, due (as noted) to the proximity of iron and magnets and the reduced air gap.

However, this advantage has virtually evaporated, in large part due to the utilization of high-energy, rare-earch magnets (such as samarium cobalt and neodymium iron boron). By incorporating these magnets, manufacturers of slotless brushless motors have been able to routinely compensate for the greater air-gap distance. These more powerful magnets effectively enable the same (or better) torque performance for slotless products compared with slotted. Eliminating the teeth and using stronger magnets both serve to maximize the strength of the electromagnetic field for optimum power output. Rare-earth magnets, along with the fact that fewer coils, or “turns,” of the wire are required in slotless motors, also help contribute to low electrical resistance, low winding inductance, low static friction, and high thermal efficiency in slotless motor types.

One more important difference between slotless and slotted designs is the rotor diameter. Slotless motors have a larger rotor diameter than slotted construction for the same outside motor diameter and will generate a higher inertia, as well as accommodating more magnet material for greater torque. For applications with high-inertia loads, the slotless product is more likely to be specified.

Slotless Motor Applications

In general, brushless motors are usually selected over brushcommutated motors for their extended motor life. (While motor life is application-specific, 10,000 hours are usually specified.) Other reasons for specifying brushless motors include a wide speed range, higher continuous torque capability, faster acceleration, and low maintenance.

In particular, slotless versions of brushless DC motors will suit those applications that require precise positioning and smooth operation. Typical niches for these motors include computer peripherals, mass storage systems, test and measurement equipment, and medical and clean-room equipment.

As examples, designers of medical equipment can utilize slotless motors for precise control in machines that meter and pump fluids into delicate areas, such as eyes. In medical imaging equipment, slotless brushless DC motors decrease banding by providing the smoother operation at low speeds. Airplane controls supply smoother feedback to pilots. And, by eliminating cogging and resulting vibration, these motors can reduce ergonomic problems associated with hand-held production tools. Other appropriate applications include scanners, robots for library data storage, laser beam reflector rotation and radar antenna rotation equipment, among many others./span)

Customization Options

Slotless brushless DC motors, as with most motors today, feature a modular design so they can be customized to meet specific performance requirements. As examples, planetary or spur gearheads can be integrated on motors for an application’s specific torque and cost requirements. Planetary gearheads offer a higher-torque alternative. Slotless motors can further be customized with optical encoders, which provide accurate position, velocity, and direction feedback that greatly enhances motor control and allows the motors to be utilized in a wider range of applications. As a low-cost alternative to optical encoders, rotor position indicators (ie. Hall Sensors) can be specified.

When using optical encoders, differential line drivers can be utilized to eliminate the effects of electrically noisy environments. Differential line drivers are designed to ensure uncorrupted position feedback from the encoder to the control circuit.

Motor Selection Guided by Application

Despite the overall design and performance comparisons reviewed here for slotless and slotted brushless DC motor types, one should remain cautious in drawing any conclusion that one type is the ultimate choice over the other. There are simply too many variables that must be evaluated, ranging from rotor size and windings to housing and special components. A given application and its requirements should (and will) be the guiding factors in selecting a particular motor type and the customized components to be incorporated.

Some encouraging news in those applications that would clearly benefit from a slotless brushless motor is that costs are coming down to be more in line with those for slotted motors. This is because of new streamlined manufacturing techniques and an increasingly available supply of powerful magnets, which are both beginning to have a positive impact on end-product costs.

Regardless of any cost differential, however, for many applications, slotless brushless DC motors will be the preferred choice to resolve specific requirement issues. While advances in electronics are beginning to be applied that promise to reduce normal cogging in slotted products as a step toward making these motors more smooth running and quiet, the industry is not there yet: slotless motors remain the best alternative where cogging and life are defining performance issues

This Tutorial and other Motion Control Tutorials are available through www.Servo2Go.com

For further information on this new product or others in our extensive product portfolio, call 1- 877-378-0240 or e-mail Warren Osak at warren@servo2go.comor visit Servo2Go.com at: www.Servo2Go.com

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Motion Control Tutorial – Linear Induction Motor: How it Works.

What is all the hype about the Hyperloop? How does it move? What is the technology that makes it possible?

H2W Technologies Linear Induction Motor Tutorial

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Santa Clarita, CA —– Motion Control Tutorial – How Does a Linear Induction Motor Work? – Linear induction motor (LIM) theory is most easily understood as a rotary motor that has been cut and unrolled to generate linear motion, instead of rotary motion. It is comprised of two parts, the primary and secondary, which interact with one another only when power is applied. Either the primary or the secondary can be fixed while the other moves.

H2W Technologies -Motion Control - Tutorial - Linear Induction Motor Tutorial

 

When three-phase AC power is applied to the primary, a travelling electromagnetic flux wave is induced and moves relative to the primary. The wave induces an electric current in the conductive reaction plate. The induced electric current interacts with the magnetic flux to produce a linear force. The speed of the motor can be varied by changing the input frequency using an adjustable frequency drive.

The primary consists of a three-phase coil assembly, equivalent to the stator of a rotary motor. The three-phase coils are wound and inserted into a steel lamination stack along with thermal protection components. The coil windings and stack are then encapsulated in a thermally conductive epoxy.

The secondary, known as a rotor in a traditional rotary induction motor, is a reaction plate. This plate can be comprised of aluminum or copper, and a steel backing. The reaction plate length is equal to the length of the coil plus the stroke. A bearing system is required to maintain the air gap between the primary and secondary.

See the YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJD5d2-b5ZI

Linear induction motors can be manufactured in a wide range of force outputs, speeds, and footprints. For single-sided assemblies, the reaction plate consists of 1/8″ thick aluminum backed by a 1/4″ thick steel plate, and for double-sided assemblies the reaction plate is 1/8” thick aluminum or copper only. If the reaction plate is round and it has a center shaft with rotary bearings, the system will produce rotary motion.

H2W Technologies Linear Induction Motor Tutorial - Drawing

 

Why Use a Linear Induction Motor?

Linear induction motors are ideal for H2W Technologies Linear Induction Motor Tutorial - Drawingapplications that require rapid movement of large payloads. Linear induction motors can achieve speeds in excess of 1800 inches per second (45 m/s) and accelerations in the range of 3 to 4 g’s. Standard LIMs can produce forces in the range of 720 lbs (3200 N) at a 3% duty cycle. Multiple motors can be used in conjunction with each other to generate larger forces.

Linear Induction Motor Applications

LIMs can be found in theme park rides, water rides, people moving systems, high speed transportation and maglev propulsion applications. Here are some well-known examples:

Hyperloop

Hyperloop is a high-speed transport system for passengers and goods, incorporating reduced pressure tubes, pressurized pods, linear induction motors, and air compressors. Linear induction motors are used to propel and decelerate the pods over the tracks and through the tubes. The LIMs are reversible so the same motor that propels the pod in one direction down the track can be used to propel the pod back to where it started. The pods could potentially “float” on an air bearing to eliminate friction.

Big Thunder Mountain Railroad at Disneyland Resort

Big Thunder Mountain Railroad is one of the first roller coasters to use linear induction motors to accelerate cars out of the station. This allows the cars to start moving at high speeds from a stationary state, without the typical hill-and-chain start. The LIMs are also used to park cars in storage.

California Screamin at Disneyland Resort

California Screamin utilizes LIMs to launch the cars of the roller coaster. They are used again further into the ride to accelerate the cars as they travel over the hills.

Tomorrowland Transit Authority at Walt Disney World, Magic Kingdom Park

Linear induction motors power Tomorrowland Transit Authority (formerly known as the People Mover), moving large cars at smooth, slow speeds through Tomorrowland.

Dawwama at Yas Waterworld Abu Dhabi, Yas Island

The first section of Yas Island’s Dawwama water coaster is powered by LIMS. At each of the hills, the linear induction motors launch the tubes through the uphill sections. This method of propulsion in water coasters is called hydromagnetic technology.

Thunder Rapids in White Water Bay, Six Flags Fiesta Texas

Thunder Rapids, to open in 2017, will be the first water coaster is the USA to utilize hydromagnetic technology. Linear induction motors are combined with turbine technology to keep the tube speeding along the slide and over the hills.

 

About H2W Technologies, Inc.

H2W Technologies, Inc. is dedicated to the design and manufacture of linear and rotary motion products that are used in the motion control industry. The complete line of linear electric motors includes: Single and dual axis linear steppers, DC brush and brushless linear motors, voice coil actuators, and AC induction motors. Also offered is a complete line of ball screw, lead screw and belt driven positioning stages.

Other motion control products include: Limited angle torque motors for compact, limited angular excursion rotary servo applications, 3 phase brushless rotary servo motors with matching digital servo amplifiers and permanent magnet linear brakes for fail-safe, zero power braking for baggage handling and people moving applications as well as amusement park rides.

With over 75 years combined experience in the linear and rotary motion field, the H2W Technologies team of engineers offers the optimal solution to the most demanding motion control, requirements.

See Article: https://www.h2wtech.com/article/linear-induction-motor-how-it-works

See Video at Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJD5d2-b5ZI

See Product: https://www.h2wtech.com/category/linear-induction#productInfo1″

For additional information contact Mark Wilson at H2W Technologies, 26380 Ferry Ct, Santa Clarita, CA 91350; Tel: 888-702-0540, Fax: 661-251-2067, E-Mail: info@h2wtech.com or visit the website at http://www.h2wtech.com

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